1. WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION

All the stakeholders including the government have been undertaking their maximum efforts to improve the access of safe water and sanitation so as to increase the number of healthy and productive citizens. To reduce poverty and to insure sustainable socio-economic development the government of Ethiopia, NGOs, the public, and the private sector have engaged in implementation of water supply and sanitation projects i.e., study and design, construction, rehabilitation and maintenance, as well as capacity building activities at various levels.

During 1998 E.C. budget year rural and urban water supply activities have been carried out in regions.

I. Rural water supply schemes:

A/ Study and Design

During the budget year 431 source identification, 30 roof catchment's studies, study and design of new 726 rural water supply schemes, finalizing design of 11 rural schemes as well as study of 74 multi villages and rural towns have been carried out.

B/ Construction

In Rural Areas:

205 deep wells,
824 medium wells,
363 hand dung wells,
10 soil dams,
447 springs, and
3 multi - village water schemes, have been carried out through out the country.

C/ Rehabilitation

In addition, 6950 existing non-functional or semi-functional water schemes were maintained and rehabilitated during the budget year. This has reduced the percentage of rural non-functional water utilities by 5% (from 30% in 1997 E.C. to 25% in 1998).

Non-functional or semi-functional of rural water supply schemes in 1998 budget year by regions (in percentage).

No

Regions

 

Unit

 

Percentage of Non functional schemes

 

Note

1

Amhara

Percent

23

 

2

Oromiya

"

25

 

3

SNNP

"

17

 

4

Tigray

"

20

 

5

Afar

"

30

 

6

Somali

"

30

 

7

Benishangul - Gumuth

"

30

 

8

Harari

"

30

 

9

Gambella

"

30

 

10

DiereDawa

"

30

 

Total

 

25

 

II. Urban water Supply and Sanitation

Source identification study for 23 towns, 15 towns' water supply study and design, and finalizing design of 10 town's water supply have been carried out during the budget year. Moreover construction of water supply schemes for 16 small towns, and rehabilitation of 6 towns' of water supply facilities have been carried out.

The overall 1998 Water Supply and Sanitation services performance show that the over all National Access to safe drinking water (i.e. both Urban and Rural) has increased from the last year's 42% to 47.3%, which exhibited an increment of 5% for water supply services in 1998. The following table shows those achievements in regions.

Access to Water Supply By Regions, 1998 E.C

No.

Regions

Rural

Urban

Total

 

1.

Amhara

36.6

80*

41.5

2.

Oromia

40.2

87.6

46.5

3.

SNNPR

53.0

64.5

54.0

4.

Tigray

42.8

50.9

44.3

5.

Afar

41.1

73.0

44.0

6.

Somali

21.5

60.0

28.0

7.

Benishangul-Gumuz

46.0

66.2

48.0

8.

Gambella

41.4

37.0

40.6

9.

Harari

29.0

21.0*

24.0

10.

Diredawa

57.0

72.0

68.2

11.

Addis Ababa

-

90.1*

90.1

National Average

41.2

78.8

47.3

Note* Due to the low level of investments in urban Water Supply System , the corresponding Access figures of 1998 for Amhara, Harari and Addis Ababa towns show lower values compared to the previous year.

III. Major Problems encountered

During the 1998 budget year water supply and sanitation program implementation, the following problems were encountered:

Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Services:

Shortage of skilled manpower, frequent turnover, and frequent structural changes particularly at lower administrative hierarchy,
The longer time required for undertaking capacity building activities necessary to implement the World Bank investment resource,
Poor project management, and monitoring and evaluation,
Delay of external financial assistance,
Poor maintenance and rehabilitation
Poor water quality control

Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Services:

Depletion or exhaustion of ground water potentials,
Longer time period required for construction of Urban WS&S,
Currently majority of the existing Urban WS&S water systems designs have phased out, however on the other hand the rate of rehabilitation and expansion has been lagging behind,
Poor maintenance and rehabilitation,
Poor water quality control,
Most urban water utilities do not fulfill the requirement or the principle of cost recovery and self-reliance, which has undermined the interests of the external borrower. On the other hand, contrary to its huge Urban Water Supply investment requirements' the flow has remained very low.

2. IRRIGATION DEVELOPMENT

To ensure agricultural productivity and attain food security so as to reduce the level of poverty and enhance national economic development, different Irrigation projects have been implemented during the budget year. They have been carried out at pre-feasibility, feasibility, design and construction levels, which include:

Completion of the 177,998 hectares of identification study; in Megech, Rib, Anger, Negeso, Upper Belse and Angerbe sub cathements.

Detail feasibility and design studies of 233.9 thousand hectares. These detail feasibility and design activities have been undertaken in Gumera, Arjo-Dedesa, Humera, Lake Abaya , Erer and Gololcha, and Tana irrigation development areas by MOWR as well as other projects in deferent regions.

Construction of irrigation development projects.

2.1 Traditional Small scale Irrigation Development

Based on regional reports, 166634 hectares of small scale irrigation have been developed traditionally by farmers during the budget year. This makes the total hectare of traditional small scale irrigation developed up to the end of the budget year to 346.3 thousand, with beneficiaries of 1.33 million households.

2.2 Modern Small scale Irrigation Development

In 1998, study and design of 48 small scale irrigation projects and design of 15 small scale irrigation projects have been carried out. More over Preliminary study of 63 small scale irrigation projects have been conducted. Most of the study and design work of the modern small scale irrigation projects have been carried out in Tigray, Amhara, SNNP and Oromiya regions.

Similarly constructions of 8338 hectares of 21 modern small scale irrigation projects have been completed in the budget year, which benefits 33 thousand households.

2.2 Medium and Large scale Irrigation Development

Feasibility studies of Arjo Deddessa irrigation development project in Abbay cathement's and Humera irrigation development project in Tekeze cathement's have been carried out in the budget year.

In 1998, study and design of 12 medium and large scale irrigation projects have been carried out, (8 by MOWR, and 3 by SNNP and one by Oromiya). Moreover preliminary works have been completed to undertake feasibility study and design for Program II World Bank supported irrigation and drainage project in Abbay catchment's, Earor & Gololcha, Elion & Buldeho in Wabi Shebel catchment's, and Gelana, Gidabo & Bilate in Abaya catchment's, as well as Ziway irrigation development in Rift Valley catchment's.

In order to utilize ground water potential for irrigation, feasibility studies are being undertaken in Ada Bucho in Oromiya region and Alaydege in Afar region. In addition preparations have been completed to carry out feasibility studies in Kobo Girana in Amhara region and Raya Azobo in Tigray Region.

Moreover feasibility studies of Beza, Gilama and Small Abaya projects in SNNP region and Awash Fentale in Oromiya region have been carried out in the budget year.

In general feasibility studies of 233.9 thousand hectares of irrigation development projects have been under going.

On the other hand construction of 2521 hectares of Medium and Large scale Irrigation has been carried out in 1998 E.C. See the tables.

In general, the main reasons that are related to the low level of performances are low implementation capacity including shortage of heavy machineries and equipment, lack of capable and efficient contractors and their poor managerial experiences, as well as shortage of skilled manpower. Besides poor geological formations, shortage of cement, early rain, etc have contributed to the low performance of irrigation development in 1998.

3.  MONITORING AND EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM

To improve the successful implementation of programs/projects, activities as well as to facilitate the decisions making and planning processes in the Water sector, the frame work for monitoring and evaluation system in general and with their key M&E indicators in particular have been designed. Relevant discussions and trainings have been conducted with the federal and regional implementing bodies and generally agreed upon the implementation and follow-up of the M&E-MIS, as well exchange of Water sector information and experiences. As agreed Water Sector Consultation quarterly meeting has been conducted where by an assessment of water sector performances and achievements been carried out. Preparation of the Water sector assessment report has already been started based on the first quarterly meeting held on last July, and information that has been collected and reviewed from different reports and documents of the sector.

Financial Utilization
For all Water sector activities being carried out in 1998 E.C. by MOWR and Regional offices as well as some NGOs, Birr 1.6 billion has been utilized. Of which,

1.26 billion (78.8%) is spent from government,
189.5 Million (11.9%) is spent from grant,
115.8 Million (7.3%) is spent from loan and
32.049 Million (2%) is spent from own resource.

This financial resource has been invested in different water sector development sub programs as stated below.

Water supply and sanitation birr 793.6 Million (49.7%),
Irrigation Development birr 696.91 Million (43.7%),
Hydropower Development birr 40.79 Million (2.6%),
Water resource, and Basin/Watershed Management development birr 46.31 Million (2.9%), and
Capacity Building / Man power Development birr 18 Million (1.1%).

Copy Right © 2010 Ministry of Water and Energy.
Web site last updated on: March 18, 2014
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Ministry of Water, Irrigation and Energy, Haile G/Silassie Avenue,Tel. 251-1-6611111, P.O.Box 5744 and 5673, email: info@mowr.gov.et ,
Addis Ababa - Ethiopia